Sunday, October 4, 2009

French Revolution Part III

The French Revolution
Part III: The Aftermath

Thomas Allen

[Editor's note: The footnotes in the original are omitted.]

Napoleon began his career as a Freemason. The commencement of his rise, he owed to the Jacobins. Robespierre was his earliest promoter. During his Italian campaign, he treated the Church with the animus and brutality of a high-degree Masonic Illuminists. His reign was a continuation of the French Revolution.

Napoleon owed his power to Talleyrand, a Freemason Illuminists. A backlash was beginning to occur that would lead to placing the Bourbons back on the throne. To prevent the return of the Bourbons, the Illuminists vested supreme power in the hands of Napoleon. Furthermore, giving him supreme power would aid them in their goal of unifying Europe under their rule. He filled his high offices of state with Freemasons and other Illuminists.

Napoleon’s rise to power further enriched Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Rothschild acquired wealth from the armament and other industries supporting Napoleon’s army. Knowing the movements of Napoleon in advance, he gained a fortune from land and security speculation. This wealth he used to establish banks for his sons, Amschel Mayer, Salomon, Nathan Mayer, Karl and James (Jacob), in the capitals of Europe. Not only did Rothschild finance Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars, but he also financed the British. Thus, he controlled both sides of the wars.

One of Napoleon’s mistake was his encouragement of Freemasonry. (To maintain control over Freemasonry in France, he had his brothers, Joseph Bonaparte and then Lucien Bonaparte, made Grand Master. Jean Cambaceres, second consul under Napoleon, directed the Grand Orient.) As long as he served the conspiracy of the Illuminists, they served him. (Evidence that he served them well until the latter years of his reign is the lack of well-organized attempts to overthrow him and the lack of opposition that he received from established secret societies, such as Freemasonry.) The conspiracies and treason of Illuminists in other countries probably gave Napoleon more victories than the French army. Eventually, Napoleon entered into an alliance with the imperial family of Austria and procreated an heir to his throne, thus threatening the illuministic universal republic. With the Concordat of 1801, he made peace with the Catholic Church. As he became more monarchal, he began allying himself with the nobility. He even refused to borrow money from the Rothschilds; instead he established his own bank, the Bank of France, to finance his government. Worse, he began to turn against the Illuminists and Freemasonry and thwart their conspiracy. Napoleon became too powerful for the Illuminists. So, Jean Baptiste Jule Bernadotte, a Freemason, convinced him to invade Russia. The invasion of Russia destroyed the French army and ultimately brought down Napoleon.

Aiding in the overthrow of Napoleon was the Chevaliers de la Foi. Ferdinand de Bertier was the founder of the Chevaliers. Following his arrest, Bertier became a Freemason. Then he founded the Chevaliers de la Foi, which he structured after Freemasonry with grades, secrecy, and deception. The Chevaliers was ostensibly a charitable organization. However, its real purpose was political, the overthrow of Napoleon. The Chevaliers became an important intelligence agency for the invading allied army. They supported restoration of the Bourbons. (Talleyrand worked with the Chevaliers.)

Another secret society working to overthrow Napoleon was the Philadelphic Society. It was founded about 1798 as a reading and debating society without any political objective. Later it turned into a royalist anti-Bonapartist secret society. The Society had about 60 members.

General Claude Malet, a Freemason, conceived of turning it into an anti-Bonapartist secret society to restore the Bourbons to the throne. He chose his friend Lt. Colonel Oudet, a Freemason, to reorganize it. Oudet reorganized the Philadelphic Society with an oath of secrecy and fidelity, three classes of members, with each class being ignorant of the functions of the higher class, and with an air of mystery while presenting it as an association to promote moral perfection and the perfection of humanity and society. Oudet became the head of the reorganized society with absolute authority over it. Next he organized a front society, the Society of the Freres Bleus, in which soldiers were recruited without distinction of rank. He also organized front groups for peasants. The Philadelphia Society later changed its name to the Olympians.

Beginning in 1800, the Philadelphians through their front organizations were behind several attempts to overthrow Napoleon. These early conspiracies led to the imprisonment of Malet and Oudet’s loss of rank, position, and leadership of the Philadelphic Society for a while. In 1809, Oudet was killed in an ambush that Napoleon probably ordered.

In 1812, while Napoleon was in Russia, Malet organized a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon. Collaborating with him in this conspiracy were Jean Moreau, Talleyrand, Trochot, Fouche, Count Alexis of Noailles, and Count of Montmorency. Although Malet’s coup failed, and he was executed, the following year the Senate carried out the program of the Olympians (Philadelphians) and deposed Napoleon. Talleyrand became the president of the provisional government that replaced Napoleon.

After his defeat, Napoleon remained too dangerous for the Illuminists to allow to live. An agent of the Rothschilds poisoned him during his imprisonment on St. Helena. The Illuminists also had his son, the Duke of Reichstadt, murdered.

By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Rothschilds were so powerful that they practically dictated the treaty that came out of the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The result of the Congress of Vienna was placing the continent of Europe under the Rothschilds. To protect their investments, the Rothschilds instituted the principle of the "balance of power," i.e., playing various countries against each other.

With the wealth that he had acquired from the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars and through his sons, Mayer Amschel Rothschild established the greatest banking empire in Europe. By the 1820s the Rothschilds had become the dominant banking family in Europe. Amschel Mayer Rothschild succeeded his father at the Frankfurt branch in 1812, which closed in 1901. Salomon Rothschild, a Freemason, established the Vienna branch, which closed when Germany occupied Austria in 1938. Nathan Meyer Rothschild, a Freemason, established the London branch, N.M. Rothschild and Sons, in 1804. Karl Rothschild established the Naples branch, which closed in 1860. James Rothschild established the Paris branch, Rothschild Freres. The Rothschilds rose to power by getting the governments of Europe indebted to them.

Following the Congress of Vienna, the Illuminists set about preparing their next convulsion. Once again Freemasonry would be called upon to be in the forefront of the subversion and revolution. The revolutions of the remainder of the nineteenth and all of the twentieth century would be mostly under the banner of socialism—with the most violent and most obvious and odious form being under the communist branch of socialism.

With the fall of Napoleon, the Illuminists now presented themselves as friends of the monarchies of Europe. Through Freemasonry, they controlled nearly every court in Europe. Freemasons controlled the Court of Berlin as they had done so since the reign of Frederick the Great. Many minor German princes were Freemasons. Freemasons had control of the Court of Vienna since the reign of Joseph II. They guided Alexander of Russia.

When Louis XVIII became the King of France, he placed Talleyrand, Seyies, Cambaceres, Fouche, and other Illuminists in high offices. Illuminists return Louis XVIII’s favor by working to overthrow him. In 1830 they succeeded in driving his brother, Charles X, from the throne,12 and replacing him with Louis Philippe, son of Philippe Egalite, Duke of Orleans. Louis Philippe was a Freemason and was owned by James Rothschild.

Appendix: The Tugendbund

In 1807, Heinrich Frederick Karl vim Stein and Fessler, Councillor of Joseph II of Austria, organized the Tugendbund to liberate the German states from the oppressive rule of Napoleon. (Some historians claim that Stein had no involvement with the Tugendbund.) Earlier Frederick William III had appointed Stein Prime Minister of Prussia. An irony is that Napoleon had encourage Frederick William to appoint Stein as prime minister. Apparently, Napoleon saw Stein as merely a clever organizer and financier who could put Prussia in a position to pay its large war indemnifies to France. Napoleon soon learned about Stein organizing Prussia to oppose him. He then forced Frederick William to dismiss Stein. Stein fled to Austria, and Hardenberg succeeded Stein as the Prussian Prime Minister.

The Tugendbund was a secret society organized throughout Germany. The goal of the Tugendbund was to rejuvenate the German people by promising them constitutional government and a free press. It was given a Christian veneer to deceive Christians into becoming followers of Freemasonry. Among its earliest members were Karl Hardenberg, General Gerhard von Scharnhorst, General Wittgenstein, Field Marshal Gerhard von Blucher, Johann Jahn (professor of the Berlin Gymnasium, Biblical critic), and Ernst Arndt (author). Other members of the Tugendbund were Johann Fichte (philosopher), Gruner (Prussian diplomat and administrator), and Karl Korner (poet). The Tugendbund was instrumental in rallying the Germans to rise and defeat Napoleon. It also advocated for a German Confederation, which Stein viewed as necessary to make the Germans a powerful country. (Under this Confederation, all the German princes would be dethroned except the king of Prussia. The king of Prussia would become emperor of Germany, and Germany would be governed under a democratic constitution.)

Allen, Gary. None Dare Call It Conspiracy. Seal Beach, California: Concord Press, n.d. Cahill, E. Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian Movement. Second edition. Dublin, Ireland: M.H. Gill and Son, Ltd., 1930. Reprinted 1952.

Fahey, Denis. Grand Orient: Freemasonry Unmasked as the Secret Power behind Communism through Discovery of Lost Lectures Delivered by Monsignor George F. Dillon, D.D. at Edinburgh, in October 1884. New and Revised Edition. Metairie, Louisiana: Sons of Liberty, 1950.

Fay, Bernard. Revolution and Freemasonry 1680-1800. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company, 1935.

Frost, Thomas. The Secret Societies of the European Revolutions, 1776–1876. Two volumes. London, England: Tinsley Brothers, 1876.

Kah, Gary H. En Route to Global Occupation. Lafayette, Louisiana: Huntington House Publishers, 1992.

McKilliam, K.R. Conspiracy to Destroy the Christian West. London, England: The Board of Anglo-Saxon Celtic Deputies.

Marrs, Jim. Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History That Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons, and the Great Pyramids. New York, New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2000.

Morton, Frederic. The Rothschilds: A Family Portrait. Greenwich, Connecticut: Fawcett Publications, Inc., 1961.

Mullins, Eustace. The Curse of Canaan: A Demonology of History. Staunton, Virginia: Revelation Book, 1987.

Mullins, Eustace. Secrets of the Federal Reserve. 1991.

Mullins, Eustace. The World Order: Our Secret Rulers. Second edition. Staunton, Virginia: Ezra Pound Institute of Civilization, 1992.

Poncins, Leon de, Vicomte. Freemasonry and the Vatican: A Struggle for Recognition. Translator Timothy Tindal-Roberston. London, England: Briton Publishing Co., 1968.

Queenborough, Lady (Edith Starr Miller). Occult Theocracy. Two Volumes. Hawthorne, California: The Christian Book Club of America, 1933.

Roberts, J.M., The Mythology of the Secret Society. New York, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971.

Skousen, W. Cleon. The Naked Capitalist: A Review and Commentary on Dr. Carroll Quigley’s Book Tragedy and Hope. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1971.

Webster, Nesta H. Secret Societies and Subversive Movements. Palmdale, California: Omni Publication, 1924.

Copyright©2009 by Thomas Coley Allen.

French Revolution Part II

The French Revolution
Part II: The Revolution

Thomas Allen
[Editor's note: The footnotes in the original are omitted.]
At their international Congress of Wilhelmsbad in 1782, Freemasons made plans for the French Revolution. Three years later another congress met. This time it met in Paris. Like the previous congress, the Paris Congress of 1785 made plans for the French Revolution. Illuminists attending the Paris Congress included Bode, Baron de Busche, Cambaceres, Marquis de Chefdebien, Danton (Freemason), Duchanteau (Cabalistic Jew), Fouche, Lafayette (Freemason), Marat (a Freemason), Mirabeau (Freemason), Robespierre (Freemason), and Talleyrand (Freemason).[1] Savalette de Langes was elected president.

The Frankfurt Congress of 1786 followed it. This Congress was more secretive and decreed the death of Louis XVI of France and Gustavus III of Sweden.[2]

Following these congresses, the Rite of Perfection, which had been founded in 1754, was reorganized in 1786 and became the Order of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. Frederick the Great wrote the new constitution of this Order. He rearranged the degrees to bring the number up to 33. Frederick became Sovereign Grand Commander. Philippe, Duke of Orleans and Frederick’s lieutenant, became Grand Master of the Grand Orient. Thus, Frederick gained control of Freemasonry in France and carried on the work of Weishaupt and the Illuminati.

After the fall of the Bavarian Illuminati, some Illuminati fled to France and joined the lodge of the United Friends. Two Illuminati, Bode and Busche, meet with Mirabeau, who was also an Illuminate, and Talleyrand in 1787 in Paris. Also attending this meeting were two members of the Strict Observance, Marquis de Chefdebien d’Armisson and Count Leopold de Kollowrath-Krakowski, who was also an Illuminate. With the United Friends lodges, they brought together the revolutionists and subversives in the other lodges and the Grand Orient into one group. These Illuminists were so successful in gaining control of Freemasonry and allied systems in France that even the philosophical political program of the Illuminati replaced Cabalistic magic of the most mystical lodge.[3]

Working in and through Freemasonry, Illuminists organized and orchestrated the French Revolution. The French Revolution was one of the great orgies of blood sacrifices to Lucifer in modern times. The purpose of the French Revolution was to satisfy Lucifer’s lust for blood and to transfer the property of the Church, nobility, and middle class to the bankers and their allied Illuminists. It also sought to destroy the political, economic, and social structure of France. In achieving these goals, the French Revolution was largely successful. By the end of the Reign of Terror, the Illuminists had achieved many of their destructive goals in France as the monarchy, the aristocracy, and Church had all been overthrown.

In England, Prime Minister William Pitt fell under the control of William Petty, Earl of Shelburne. Pitt became heavily indebted. Lord Shelburne and his closest associates paid Pitt’s debt. In turn they gained control of Pitt’s policy decisions. As the chief of the British intelligence, Lord Shelburne intrigued much of the excess of the French Revolution. His agents promoted some of the most atrocious acts of the Reign of Terror.[4]

English money help finance the Revolution. However, the money seemed to have come from sources independent of Pitt and King George III.[5]

The international bankers, led by the Swiss bankers, refused loans to the French government unless Louis XVI appointed Jacques Necker, a German banker, Minister of Finance. Preaching austerity, Necker destroyed the French currency through inflation. The inflation caused even greater unrest. Many suspect that he inflated the currency at the direction of certain Swiss bankers who sought to profit greatly from the demise of France.[6]

Secular humanism, a modernization of the Cabala, also inspired the French Revolution. The Academia of the de Medicis had advanced secular humanism in Florence. From secular humanism came the denial of God. Once God was denied, regicide and mass executions were easy.

Freemasonry had degraded Christianity by placing it on the same level as Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and all the other false religions. (Perhaps more correctly, all religions were inferior to Freemasonry.) Freemasonry taught that no religion was any better than any other religion. (Thus, it negated all religions.) Religious dogmas were merely personal opinions. The Church should be reduced to executing the will of Freemasonry, which would be "the clearinghouse for ideas and beliefs and the guiding spirit of humanity."[7] Freemasonry had become the new religion.

Furthermore, the nobility also lusted after the property of the Catholic Church. They knew that they could not have it without a civil war. Moreover, the Illuminists wanted to place the Church and its clergy under the control of the government, which they controlled. A new church and religion would be established to enlighten the people with Illuminism.

Also, responsible for the excesses of the French Revolution was the Enlightenment of Descartes. Another culprit was the Positivism of Comte: "God is only an abstraction—he does not exist; only humanity is real."

Once discontent had been fomented and an intense propaganda war waged against Church and state, all that was needed was a fuse to set off the volatile mixture. Philippe, Duke of Orleans, was the fuse. To create a crisis and popular unrest, the Duke of Orleans engineered a food shortage. Illuminists used the resulting famine of 1789 to lead the people into revolt.

From the beginning until the execution of Robespierre, the Jacobins controlled the Revolution. The Jacobins wanted to destroy the monarchy and other existing institutions as a preclude to usher in their New World Order. To achieve their goal, they used a Hegelian formula that has since become a common revolutionary tactic. They hired thugs and encouraged radicals to riot and act lawlessly (thesis). Then influential Jacobins came forth and promised "law and order" (antitheses). Next came oppression and the police state that the Jacobins used to get rid of their enemies and rivals (synthesis).

During the French Revolution, Illuminists used Masonic lodges to carry out the extremes of the Revolution. Illuminists brought about the Reign of Terror during which King Louis XVI and many priests and aristocrats were murdered. Many middle class Freemasons who knew too much were also murdered.

In 1789, France had more than 2000 Masonic lodges with more than 100,000 adepts.[8] The presence of so many lodges in France facilitated the work of British intelligence in exasperating the Revolution.

During the Revolution, the National Assembly had 605 members. Of these, 477 were Freemasons.[9] More than 300 members of the Constituent Assembly were Freemasons.[10]

Freemasons (primarily Lafayette) wrote and approved in 1789 the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. This Declaration of Rights became the first chapter of the constitution adopted in 1791. It essentially renounced allegiance to Christ and declared that France no longer had any duty to God through Christ. Society was no longer to be organized under Christ the King. The Masonic controlled Constituent Assembly also emancipated the Jews.

Freemasons directed every aspect of the Revolution and profited greatly from it. Survival was difficult for those who were not Freemasons. Many of the most influential and powerful aristocratic families held high positions in Freemasonry in France. For the most part, they and their property survived the orgy of the French Revolution.

Mirabeau’s mentor was Moses Mendelssohn. Under the influence of Mendelssohn, Rothschild, and other conspirators, Mirabeau became an important leader of the French Revolution. He was a high-degree Illuminist. He became a champion of the people, whom he held in contempt and used for political advantage. Although he claimed to represent the people, he was really an agent of the Illuminists. One of his chief jobs was liaison among the Illuminati, German lodges, and the Grand Orient. As a member of the Estates General, his task, which he executed extremely well, was to prevent any reforms that would solve the problems of the nation and relieve discontent from taking place. (Most of the laws enacted during this time were designed to antagonize factory workers, tradesmen, and peasants.) He was also tasked with consolidating political power. (Within a month after convening, the Third Estate had converted itself into the National Assembly and had usurped the powers of the entire Estate General.) His downfall came when he conspired to save the life of King Louis. To silence him, the Illuminists had him poisoned.[11]

Mirabeau and his associates delivered the government of France to the Illuminati with a coup d’etat by the Third Estate when it usurped all the power of the Estate General and converted itself into the National Assembly. This action destroyed the constitution of France. The National Assembly then had a new constitution, the Constitution of 1791, drawn up and adopted. This Constitution consolidated legislative and executive power in the National Assembly. Now the Jacobins openly held power.

Mirabeau and Mendelssohn persuade the Duke of Orleans to make poor investments until he had lost his fortune and was deep in debt. To pay his debt, he forfeited his palace, the Palais Royal, to his lenders. His lenders placed de Laclos in charge of the palace.

De Laclos was a Grand Master of the Rosicrucian Knights of Malta. He turned the Palais Royal into a high class brothel and a headquarters for printing revolutionary pamphlets.

Although the Duke of Orleans was an Illuminist (after all, he was Grand Master of the Grand Orient), he was a not a high-degree Illuminist. To the high-degree Illuminists, he was merely a tool to be used to achieve their goals. He wanted to be king. Using this desire, the Illuminists manipulated him to do their bidding. He only knew part of their plan, the part that the illuminist Mirabeau told him. He did not know that higher Illuminists had no intentions of replacing one monarch with another. Obviously, he had no idea of the extent that the Illuminists were using him. The Illuminists freely used his wealth and influence. He gave the cause all that he had. When the Illuminists no longer had any use for him, he was guillotined.

Two other leaders of the Revolution, Marat and Robespierre, conceived a plan to depopulate France. The plan called for killing as many Frenchmen as possible—at least half the population. Who died did not matter as long as vast numbers died. (Lucifer was thirsty for blood.) Victims were taken randomly; the more innocent, the better. They were all counterrevolutionists, and all counterrevolutionists must be executed. Thus, began the Reign of Terror. (The Illuminists also saw mass execution as a solution to the mass unemployment that their revolution had caused.)

With the Reign of Terror, occultism captured the French Revolution. The Revolution moved into a phase of murder and destruction just for the sake of murder and destruction. It was an "orgy of hatred, lust, and cruelty directed not only against the rich but still more against the poor and defenseless, the destruction of science, art, and beauty, the destruction of the churches, the organized campaign against all that was noble, all that was sacred, all that humanity holds dear."[12] It was a rebirth of Satanism of the fourteenth century. The Cabalists, Gnostics, and other cults had finally succeeded in bringing down Christianity.

The Reign of Terror gave the politically powerful Insiders the opportunity to eliminate their weaker rivals. It also gave the weaker rivals an opportunity to usurp and overthrow their superiors. Not only did many poor, obscure people die during the Reign of Terror, so did many dupes, collaborators, sympathizers, and opportunists. Even some high-degree Illuminists were executed.

The Reign of Terror ended with the deaths of Marat, Robespierre, and Danton. These three had orchestrated the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was convicted of conspiracy and executed from fear that he would reveal the involvement of the Illuminists in the Revolution. Furthermore, he had also ordered the execution of Jean Baptiste Clootz (Anacharsis). Although the Reign of Terror had fallen short of its goal of killing half the French population, it had claimed thousands of lives including some important Illuminists.

Weishaupt had outlined the course of the French Revolution, and it followed his plan with amazing accuracy. He had said that princes were to be used to advance Illuminism. The Illuminists certainly used the Duke of Orleans and his lust to be king. Weishaupt called for enlisting women. The French revolutionists certainly used women—not women of intelligence or energy, but women with "disordered imaginations and perverted passions."[13] His plan called for the destruction of the monarchy, which the French Revolution achieved. It called for the destruction of the Christian religion. Although the Revolution did not fully accomplish this goal, it did inflict great damage with the slaughter of priests and degradation of the churches with the blasphemous and immoral ceremonies performed in them. Weishaupt’s plan called for the destruction of industry and science, and manufacturing towns were ravaged, libraries burned, and scientists executed. When the Reign of Terror ended, France laid demoralized and in ruins, filled with hatred. It was bankrupt—morally, spiritually, physically, and fiscally; Lucifer and his Illuminists had won a great victory. The only real failure in Weishaupt’s plan was inciting a proletariat uprising across Europe. When the proletariat failed to revolt, the Illuminists forced the Jacobins to adopt a nationalistic attitude and launch a program of imperialistic conquest—the Napoleonic Wars.

The French Revolution ended, or more correctly, entered a new phase, when Napoleon, who was a high-degree Illuminist, assumed power. When it ended more than a million Frenchmen had given their lives.[14] This loss was far short of the 12 to 15 million that the Illuminists had slated for death. Like all illuministic revolution, the French Revolution was not a revolution of liberation; it was a revolution of oppression. It never had popular support.


1. Denis Fahey, Grand Orient: Freemasonry Unmasked as the Secret Power behind Communism through Discovery of Lost Lectures Delivered by Monsignor George F. Dillon, D.D. at Edinburgh, in October 1884 (New and Revised Edition. Metairie, Louisiana: Sons of Liberty, 1950), p. 31. E. Cahill, Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian Movement, Second edition (Dublin, Ireland: M.H. Gill and Son, Ltd., 1930. Reprinted 1952), p. 14. Nesta H. Webster, Secret Societies and Subversive Movements (Palmdale, California: Omni Publication, 1924), p. 234.

2. Clarence Kelly, Conspiracy Against God and Man: A Study of the Beginnings and Early History of the Great Conspiracy (Belmont, Massachusetts: Western Islands, 1974), p. 151.

3. Webster, Secret Societies, pp. 236-237.

4. Eustace Mullins, The Curse of Canaan: A Demonology of History (Staunton, Virginia: Revelation Book, 1987), p. 112.

5. The Cause of World Unrest (New York, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1920), p 9. Lady Queenborough (Edith Starr Miller), Occult Theocracy (Two Volumes. Hawthorne, California: The Christian Book Club of America, 1933), p. 380.

6. Anton Chaitkin, Treason in America From Aaron Burr to Averell Harriman (New York, New York: New Benjamin Franklin House, 1984), p. 20. Mullins, p. 113.

7. Bernard Fay, Revolution and Freemasonry 1680-1800 (Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company, 1935), p. 297.

8. Mullins, p. 114. Queenborough, p. 337.

9. Queenborough, p.380.

10. Fahey, p. xiv.

11. Kelly, pp. 155-157, 168-169. Mullins, p. 112. Nesta H. Webster, World Revolution: The Plot Against Civilization (Editor Anthony Gittens. Seventh edition. Palmdale, California: Omni Publications, 1994), p. 45.

12. Webster, Secret Societies, p. 246.

13. Webster, World Revolution, p.46.

14. Kelly, p. 164.

[Editor's note: The list of references in the original is omitted.]

Copyright © 2009 by Thomas Coley Allen.

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