Revolution of 1848Thomas Allen
[Editor's note: The footnotes in the original are omitted.]
During the 1820s, the Illuminists rehearsed with revolts throughout Europe their plan for European-wide revolt in the future. The Revolution of the 1820s resulted in the abdication of the King of Piedmont (1821) and the establishment of a constitutional regime in Portugal (1822), which lasted until 1824. It led to revolts throughout the European part of the Turkish Empire in 1821 with rebellions breaking out in Walachia, Moldavia, and Greece. Rebellions also occurred in Spain, Russia, and Italy.
Revolts occurred in the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The most successful was in Greece. With the support of the secret society Hetairia Phileke, Greek independence was achieved in 1827.The Hetairia Phileke was a reformation of an earlier society, Hetairias, which Constantin Rhygas had formed. Greeks living in Vienna formed the Hetairia Phileke in 1814. Its organization was similar to the Bavarian Illuminati. Initially, it operated from Moscow; later, in 1820, it moved its center of operation to Kishinev in Bessarabia. Its avowed goal was to liberate Greece from Turkish rule. Among its early patrons were Czar Alexander I of Russia, Count John Capodistria (who was Czar Alexander’s private secretary and secretary of foreign affairs and was the primary organizer of the Hetairia Phileke), Prince John Caradja (hospodar of Walachia), and Prince Alexander Ypsilanti (a major-general in the Russian army). Among its leading members were Capodistria (who became president of Greece in 1828, which office he held until assassinated in 1831), Caradja (who wanted to become king of Walachia), Count Galati (a Greek jeweler living in Moscow), Anthymos Gazi, Petros Mavromichalis (who was governor of Maina and who wanted to become the ruler of the Peloponnesus), Pentedekas (a Greek merchant), Sekeris (a Greek merchant), Prince Michael Soutzo (who wanted to become king of Moldavia), Ypsilanti (who later became the head of the Hetairia Phileke and who wanted to become king of Rumania, i.e., Walachia and Moldavia), and Zanthos (a Greek merchant). Hence, a secret society organized and executed the Greek rebellion. Yet this secret society did not originate in Greece and was never in Greece. It obtained its support from persons and countries that lacked the passion of the Greeks for independence, but who were motivated solely by a desire to damage the Ottoman Empire. Although the revolt in Greece succeeded in bringing independence, the rebellion in Walachia and Moldavia failed. Greek independence was secured in 1827 when Great Britain, France, and Russia agreed to intervene in the Greek revolt on behalf of the Greeks.
Mutinies occurred in the Spanish army; French intervention crushed them. The conflict in Spain resulted primarily from factions in the Constitutional party—the ultra constitutionalists led by the Society of the Communeros and the moderate constitutionalists led by the Freemasons—and to a lesser extent between these two factions and the absolutists, whom most European countries favored. The Communeros led the mutiny with the immediate objective of deposing the king and replacing him with a regency in the name of defending the constitution and the crown. With the aid of the French, the king and the absolutists eventually prevailed over the constitutionalists.
In 1825, the Decembrist Conspiracy broke out in Russia, but it was quickly suppressed. Behind the Decembrists was the United Slavonians. The goals of the United Slavonians were to overthrow the Russian autocracy and to unite the Slavic people. This Society came into existence between 1817 and 1820, with the most likely year being 1820. Many of its members came from the military.
Revolts also broke out in Italy. In Italy secret societies were intimately involved in fomenting the revolts. Leading the Italian revolts were the Carbonari, which had heavily infiltrated the military. The Carbonari succeeded in gaining control of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and establishing a constitutional monarchy for a few months until the Austrians crushed them. (Disagreement between the Constitutional party and the Republicans divided the Carbonari and lead to their downfall.) The Carbonari, along with the closely allied secret societies, the Italian Federati, the Guelphs, and the Adelphi, were behind the turmoil in Venetia, Lombardy, and Piedmont. In Piedmont, they forced the king to abdicate.
The Revolution of the 1820s was practice for the next great upheaval—the Revolution of 1848.
The year of 1830 was the year that the leadership of the Illuminists change. B. Nubius, an Italian nobleman, succeed Weishaupt as the head of the Illuminists when Weishaupt died in 1830. Jews were the primary supporters of Nubius. Then in 1837, Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian revolutionary leader, had Nubius assassinated and became the head of the Illuminists. Mazzini led the Illuminists toward a more direct action of promoting revolutionary outbreaks.
Plans for the next great revolution were made at the Masonic Congress of 1846 at Strasbourg. High-degree Freemasons and members of other secret societies attended this Congress. The Haute Vente took the lead. Among the French Freemasons’ representatives were Louis Blanc (an ardent socialist), Caussidiere (Prefect of Police in Paris during the Revolution of 1848), Adolphe Isaac Cremieux (Jew and head of Alliance Israelite Universelle) and Alexandre A. Ledru-Rollin. Among the German Freemasons’ representatives were Heckler, Fickler, and Herwegh from Baden; Robert Blum from Saxony; Karl Jacobi (a Jew and formerly a professor of mathematics at Konigsberg ); and von Gagern from Berlin. The next violent revolution was to be Communism, which has lasted more than a century and a half.
Like Zionism, Communism came out of the Frankfurt Illuminists. In 1807, Sigismund Geisenheimer (head clerk of the House of Rothschild), Zvi Hirsch Horowitz (chief rabbi of Frankfurt), and Isaac Hildesheim (later call Justus Hiller) established the Frankfurt Lodge of Freemasons. Among the members of the Frankfurt Lodge were all the leading bankers of Frankfurt: Adler, Ellison, Goldschmidt, Hanau, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, and Speyer. About a fourth of its members were non-Jews.
To carry forth their communist revolution, the Illuminists worked through the Communist League. The Communist League was a secret society founded in 1847. It came out of the League of the Just, which sprang from the Parisian Outlaws League. German refugees fleeing the suppression of the Bavarian Illuminati may have been involved in founding the Parisian Outlaws League. Among its members were Karl Marx, Baron Lionel de Rothschild, and Heinrich Heine.
The Communist League commissioned Marx and Friedrich Engels to write the Communist Manifesto, which was published in 1848. (Marx and Engels wanted to destroy Europe with revolution and out of the chaos and destruction, would raise a dictatorship of Satanists.) Through Freemasonry, it immediately gained worldwide circulation. With the appearance of the Communist Manifesto, the Revolution of 1848 erupted across Europe. The purpose of the Revolution was to destroy the existing social order and to bring all the countries of Europe under the control of the Illuminists.
Behind the Revolution of 1848 were Mazzini and Lord Palmerston, who was Foreign Minister of Great Britain at this time. Palmerston’s contribution came through British diplomacy and secret service money. Mazzini’s role was organizing revolutionary sects, such as Young Italy, Young Poland, and Young Europe.
The Revolution of 1848 erupted in Paris and soon spread across much of Europe. Within a few weeks, insurrection and turmoil broke out in Baden, Vienna, Berlin, Milan, Parma, Venice, London, Spain, Naples, and Russia. Behind these insurrections and turmoil were Freemasonry and the Haute Vente.
According to Benjamin Disraeli, a Freemason, Jews were ultimately behind the Revolution of 1848. They desired not so much to replace the present order with Communism or socialism, but to destroy Christendom and Christianity.
The Revolution of 1848 was not the success that the Illuminists had sought. They wanted to overthrow the established monarchs and replaced them with a Communist state. After the failed Revolution, many of the revolutionists fled to the United States and became advocators and supporters of the abolitionist war to destroy the South and later Lincoln’s war to suppress Southern independence.
As a result of the failure of the Revolution of 1848, Lord Palmerston went on to supplant Mazzini as the chief of Western secret societies. Mazzini was the person primarily responsible for Palmerston’s rise to power in the Alta Vendita. With his rise to power in the secret societies, Palmerston turned from Mazzini to Napoleon III.
Following Palmerston’s death, Mazzini again gained control of the Western secret societies. With the assistance of Albert Pike, Mazzini established organizational control over Freemasonry.
Appendix: Karl Marx
Karl Marx became the most famous Communist. He was the grandson of a Jewish Rabbi. His ancestry contained an unbroken line of rabbis from the sixteenth century until his father “converted” to Christianity. Also, his mother had a long line of rabbinical ancestors. His father converted to Christianity to keep his job, not because of any convection; his father was a disciple of Voltaire. 
In his youth, Marx had a Christian leaning. However, during his last year in high school, Moses Hess, whom Marx called the “Communist Rabbi,” instilled Marx with a strong anti-Christian attitude and initiated him into an advance level of Satanism. (Hess also converted Friedrich Engels to Communism.)
Marx embraced Communism not because he believed in it. He embraced it because he was a Satanist, and Communism was a means to destroy Christian civilization.
Marx was a close associate of Mazzini. Mazzini used Marx to penetrate and subvert the growing socialist labor movement.
Communism ingrains and feeds on hate, and Marx hated. He hated the proletarians, whom he avoided, and considered them as merely the raw material needed for the construction of his revolution.
After the Revolution of 1848, Marx went on to help organize the International Workingmen’s Association in 1864 in London, which became known as the First International. Actually, Marx played no active role in the founding of the First International, but was placed on the organization committee anyway. Other organizers were Wolff (a Polish Jew, and Mazzini’s personal secretary), Cremer (secretary of the English Masons’ Union), Le Lubez (a French Freemason), and Weston (an Owenite). Lionel Rothschild was the controlling power behind the First International. Wolff proposed organizing the Association using the statutes of Mazzini’s working men’s associates, which the Association accepted. Middle class Illuminists organized the First International to deceive and control the proletariat. It consisted of Freemasons, Communists, socialists, atheists, and Satanists. Most of its members had no real idea what life was like for the proletariat or what their hopes and dreams were—other than they did not desire the New World Order about which the illuministic First International preached. The leaders of Europe’s secret societies soon joined and gained control of the First International. In reality, it was merely a congress of secret societies disguising itself as a labor convention. It was a front for the Illuminists. The program and doctrines espoused by the First International were essentially Masonic Illuminism. Out of the First International came Communism of the twentieth century.
Hoarse Greeley, member of the Columbian Lodge of the Order of the Illuminati, hired Marx in 1851 as a foreign correspondent for the New York Tribune.
Marx fled to New York in 1872 with the First International to escape Michael Bakunin’s harassment. In 1876, the First International formally dissolved when Marx merged the International Workingmen’s Party with the Socialist Party.
1. Lady Queenborough, (Edith Starr Miller). Occult Theocracy (Two Vols. Hawthorne, California: The Christian Book Club of America, 1933), pp. 438-439.
2. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of the European Revolutions, 1776–1876 (Vol. II, London, England: Tinsley Brothers, 1876), p. 46-47.
3. Frost, vol. II, pp. 47, 50-52, 54.
4. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of the European Revolutions, 1776–1876 (Vol. I, London, England: Tinsley Brothers, 1876),, pp. 282-300.
5. Frost, vol. I pp. 249ff.
6. Nesta H. Webster, World Revolution: The Plot Against Civilization (Ed. Anthony Gittens. Seventh ed. Palmdale, California: Omni Publications, 1994), p. 96.
7. Eustace Mullins, The Curse of Canaan: A Demonology of History (Staunton, Virginia: Revelation Book, 1987), pp. 94-95.
8. Webster, pp. 134, 157.
9. Mullins, p. 94.
10. Mullins, pp. 92-93. Jacob Katz, Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1723-1939 (Translator Leonard Oschry. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970), p. 60.
11. Dennis L. Cuddy, Now Is the Dawning of the New Age New World Order (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Hearthstone Publishing, 2000), p. 31.
12. K.R. McKilliam, Conspiracy to Destroy the Christian West (London, England: The Board of Anglo-Saxon Celtic Deputies), p. 8. Mullins, p. 94, 211.
13. Webster, p. 162.
14. Denis Fahey, Grand Orient: Freemasonry Unmasked as the Secret Power behind Communism through Discovery of Lost Lectures Delivered by Monsignor George F. Dillon, D.D. at Edinburgh, in October 1884 (New and Revised Edition. Metairie, Louisiana: Sons of Liberty, 1950) p. 83.
15. The Cause of World Unrest (New York, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1920), pp. 55-56.
16. William T. Still, New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies (Lafayette, Louisiana: Huntington House Publishers, 1990), p. 130.
17. Stanley Monteith, Brotherhood of Darkness (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Hearthstone, 2000),
18. Gary H. Kah, En Route to Global Occupation (Lafayette, Louisiana: Huntington House Publishers, 1992), p. 116. Queenborough, p. 219.
19. Webster, p. 181.
20. "Red Symphony Two Accounts," http://www.acts1711.com.red_symphony.htm, Nov. 9, 2003.
21. Still, pp. 137-138.
[Editor's note: The list of references in the original are omitted.]
Copyright © 2009, Thomas Coley Allen.
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