Tuesday, December 1, 2015

Of One Blood

Of One Blood
Thomas Allen

    Proponents of the unity-of-man doctrine who use the Bible to support their doctrine like to quote the first part of Acts 17:26: “And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth. . . .” Therefore, they conclude that all humans have a common origin. They imply, if not outright claim, that the blood of the races of humans is identical. Thus, races cannot be distinguished by blood.
    Most modern scholars doubt that the Greek text used by the translators of the King James Version of the Bible, for this verse was a copy of the original. The best Greek texts do not contain the word “blood.” The word “blood” appears mainly in later Western manuscripts as an interpolation. Most likely, “one” in Acts 17:26 refers to God, who is the maker of all nations of humans.
    Even if the word “blood” is in the original, this verse does not show that all humans descended from Adam. It merely shows that God made each race of humans.
    Whatever blood means in this verse, it does not mean blood flowing through the veins. As shown below, the frequency of genes, alleles, antibodies, and proteins in the blood of the races of humans varies significantly.
    The blood of the races varies at least statistically. The percentage of the population of the several races having certain blood groups varies enough so that the race of a population, if not of a particular individual, can often be identified based on blood analysis. Further, a person’s blood can often eliminate him as a member of a particular race.

    The Diego (Di-a) blood antigen is absent in Aryans and Negroes, but high in Turanians.[2] The Kell (K) antigen is common in Aryans, but is rare in Negroes and Turanians.[3] The Sutter (Js-a) antigen occurs only in Negroes.[4] Indo-Australians have an extremely low frequency of the B gene, approaching zero, a low frequency of the M gene, no A-2 gene,[5] and a high frequency of the N gene.[6] Asian Turanians have a high frequency of the B and Rh-z genes and almost no A-2 gene. American Turanians have a low frequency of the N gene, little or no B gene, and no A-2 gene. Negroes have a high frequency of the A-2 and Rh-o genes and possess some frequency of the Rh− gene. Aryans have a moderately high frequency of the Rh− gene, and a moderate frequency of the B and A-2 genes.[7] Rh− (cde) blood is almost none existent in Turanians, Indo-Australians, and Khoisans.[8] Blood group A-1,2 is found in Negroes, but is seldom found in Aryans or Turanians.[9] Compared with other races, Aryans have a high frequency of A-2 and Rh−.[10] Negroes are high in Rh-o, P, and Haptoglobin Hp-1 and very low Fy-a (Duffy positive). They have “private genes attached to the MNSU system, including Hunter, Henshaw, and V; a special Rh gene, e-s, in the combination Dce-s; and a gamma globulin variant Gmab.”[11] Indo-Australians are high in CDe (Rh-z), N, NS, Duffy positive (Fy-a), and Haptoglobin Hp-1.[12] Contrary to popular myths, the races do not share a common blood.
    Moreover, the blood of humans strongly resembles that of chimpanzees.[13] Even a chimpanzee with type-A blood can receive a transfusion of human type-A blood.[14] If the criterion of having the same blood makes all the races of humans descended from Adam, then chimpanzees are also his descendants.
    Furthermore, “blood” in Acts 17:26 cannot be referring to the genetic makeup. The different races of humans have significantly different genetic makeup.[15]
    As shown above, the various species of humans differ in their blood. Humans do not have a common blood.


1. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Francesco Cavalli-Sforza, The Great Human Diaspora: The History of Diversity and Evolution, trans. Sarah Thorne (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), p. 125. Carleton S. Coon, and Edward E. Hunt, Jr., The Living Races of Man (New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), p. 286. Richard A. Goldsby, Race and Races (New York, New York: The Macmillian Company, 1971), p. 59. R. Ruggles Gates, Human Ancestry from a Genetical Point of View (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1948), pp. 158, 338, 356. Stanley M. Garn, Human Races (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas • Publisher, 1961), p. 47.

2. Stephen Molnar, Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups: The Problem of Human Variation (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), p. 76. Coon and Hunt, p. 283. Lionel Casson, et al. Mysteries of the Past, ed. Joseph J. Thorndike, Jr. (New York, New York: American Heritage Publishing Company, Inc., 1977), p. 219.

3. N. E. Morton, “Interracial Crosses and Group Differences,” Racial Variation in Man, ed. F. J. Ebling (New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1975), p. 152.

4. Morton, p. 152.

5. William C. Boyd and Isaac Asimov, Races and People (New York, New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1955), p. 158.

6. Gates, p. 157.

7. Boyd and Asimov, p. 158.

8. Casson, p. 219.

9. Carleton S. Coon, The Origin of Races (New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), p. 173.

10. Coon and Hunt, p. 286.

11. Coon and Hunt, p. 286.

12. Coon and Hunt, p. 287.

13. Coon, pp. 172-176.

14. Herbert Wendt, It Begin in Babel: The Story of the Birth and Development of Races and Peoples, trans. James Kirkup (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1961), p. 374.

15. See the works of Luigi Lucia Cavalli-Sforza — especially The Great Human Diaspora: The History of Diversity and Evolution (1995) and The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994). Officially, he takes the politically correct position of racial equality and the unity of man. Also, see Species of Men: A Polygenetic Hypothesis (1999) by Thomas C. Allen for a polygenetic position.

Copyright © 2015 by Thomas Coley Allen.

More articles on anthropology.

No comments:

Post a Comment