Sunday, October 4, 2009

French Revolution Part III

The French Revolution
Part III: The Aftermath

Thomas Allen

[Editor's note: The footnotes in the original are omitted.]

Napoleon began his career as a Freemason. The commencement of his rise, he owed to the Jacobins. Robespierre was his earliest promoter. During his Italian campaign, he treated the Church with the animus and brutality of a high-degree Masonic Illuminists. His reign was a continuation of the French Revolution.

Napoleon owed his power to Talleyrand, a Freemason Illuminists. A backlash was beginning to occur that would lead to placing the Bourbons back on the throne. To prevent the return of the Bourbons, the Illuminists vested supreme power in the hands of Napoleon. Furthermore, giving him supreme power would aid them in their goal of unifying Europe under their rule. He filled his high offices of state with Freemasons and other Illuminists.

Napoleon’s rise to power further enriched Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Rothschild acquired wealth from the armament and other industries supporting Napoleon’s army. Knowing the movements of Napoleon in advance, he gained a fortune from land and security speculation. This wealth he used to establish banks for his sons, Amschel Mayer, Salomon, Nathan Mayer, Karl and James (Jacob), in the capitals of Europe. Not only did Rothschild finance Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars, but he also financed the British. Thus, he controlled both sides of the wars.

One of Napoleon’s mistake was his encouragement of Freemasonry. (To maintain control over Freemasonry in France, he had his brothers, Joseph Bonaparte and then Lucien Bonaparte, made Grand Master. Jean Cambaceres, second consul under Napoleon, directed the Grand Orient.) As long as he served the conspiracy of the Illuminists, they served him. (Evidence that he served them well until the latter years of his reign is the lack of well-organized attempts to overthrow him and the lack of opposition that he received from established secret societies, such as Freemasonry.) The conspiracies and treason of Illuminists in other countries probably gave Napoleon more victories than the French army. Eventually, Napoleon entered into an alliance with the imperial family of Austria and procreated an heir to his throne, thus threatening the illuministic universal republic. With the Concordat of 1801, he made peace with the Catholic Church. As he became more monarchal, he began allying himself with the nobility. He even refused to borrow money from the Rothschilds; instead he established his own bank, the Bank of France, to finance his government. Worse, he began to turn against the Illuminists and Freemasonry and thwart their conspiracy. Napoleon became too powerful for the Illuminists. So, Jean Baptiste Jule Bernadotte, a Freemason, convinced him to invade Russia. The invasion of Russia destroyed the French army and ultimately brought down Napoleon.

Aiding in the overthrow of Napoleon was the Chevaliers de la Foi. Ferdinand de Bertier was the founder of the Chevaliers. Following his arrest, Bertier became a Freemason. Then he founded the Chevaliers de la Foi, which he structured after Freemasonry with grades, secrecy, and deception. The Chevaliers was ostensibly a charitable organization. However, its real purpose was political, the overthrow of Napoleon. The Chevaliers became an important intelligence agency for the invading allied army. They supported restoration of the Bourbons. (Talleyrand worked with the Chevaliers.)

Another secret society working to overthrow Napoleon was the Philadelphic Society. It was founded about 1798 as a reading and debating society without any political objective. Later it turned into a royalist anti-Bonapartist secret society. The Society had about 60 members.

General Claude Malet, a Freemason, conceived of turning it into an anti-Bonapartist secret society to restore the Bourbons to the throne. He chose his friend Lt. Colonel Oudet, a Freemason, to reorganize it. Oudet reorganized the Philadelphic Society with an oath of secrecy and fidelity, three classes of members, with each class being ignorant of the functions of the higher class, and with an air of mystery while presenting it as an association to promote moral perfection and the perfection of humanity and society. Oudet became the head of the reorganized society with absolute authority over it. Next he organized a front society, the Society of the Freres Bleus, in which soldiers were recruited without distinction of rank. He also organized front groups for peasants. The Philadelphia Society later changed its name to the Olympians.

Beginning in 1800, the Philadelphians through their front organizations were behind several attempts to overthrow Napoleon. These early conspiracies led to the imprisonment of Malet and Oudet’s loss of rank, position, and leadership of the Philadelphic Society for a while. In 1809, Oudet was killed in an ambush that Napoleon probably ordered.

In 1812, while Napoleon was in Russia, Malet organized a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon. Collaborating with him in this conspiracy were Jean Moreau, Talleyrand, Trochot, Fouche, Count Alexis of Noailles, and Count of Montmorency. Although Malet’s coup failed, and he was executed, the following year the Senate carried out the program of the Olympians (Philadelphians) and deposed Napoleon. Talleyrand became the president of the provisional government that replaced Napoleon.

After his defeat, Napoleon remained too dangerous for the Illuminists to allow to live. An agent of the Rothschilds poisoned him during his imprisonment on St. Helena. The Illuminists also had his son, the Duke of Reichstadt, murdered.

By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Rothschilds were so powerful that they practically dictated the treaty that came out of the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The result of the Congress of Vienna was placing the continent of Europe under the Rothschilds. To protect their investments, the Rothschilds instituted the principle of the "balance of power," i.e., playing various countries against each other.

With the wealth that he had acquired from the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars and through his sons, Mayer Amschel Rothschild established the greatest banking empire in Europe. By the 1820s the Rothschilds had become the dominant banking family in Europe. Amschel Mayer Rothschild succeeded his father at the Frankfurt branch in 1812, which closed in 1901. Salomon Rothschild, a Freemason, established the Vienna branch, which closed when Germany occupied Austria in 1938. Nathan Meyer Rothschild, a Freemason, established the London branch, N.M. Rothschild and Sons, in 1804. Karl Rothschild established the Naples branch, which closed in 1860. James Rothschild established the Paris branch, Rothschild Freres. The Rothschilds rose to power by getting the governments of Europe indebted to them.

Following the Congress of Vienna, the Illuminists set about preparing their next convulsion. Once again Freemasonry would be called upon to be in the forefront of the subversion and revolution. The revolutions of the remainder of the nineteenth and all of the twentieth century would be mostly under the banner of socialism—with the most violent and most obvious and odious form being under the communist branch of socialism.

With the fall of Napoleon, the Illuminists now presented themselves as friends of the monarchies of Europe. Through Freemasonry, they controlled nearly every court in Europe. Freemasons controlled the Court of Berlin as they had done so since the reign of Frederick the Great. Many minor German princes were Freemasons. Freemasons had control of the Court of Vienna since the reign of Joseph II. They guided Alexander of Russia.

When Louis XVIII became the King of France, he placed Talleyrand, Seyies, Cambaceres, Fouche, and other Illuminists in high offices. Illuminists return Louis XVIII’s favor by working to overthrow him. In 1830 they succeeded in driving his brother, Charles X, from the throne,12 and replacing him with Louis Philippe, son of Philippe Egalite, Duke of Orleans. Louis Philippe was a Freemason and was owned by James Rothschild.

Appendix: The Tugendbund

In 1807, Heinrich Frederick Karl vim Stein and Fessler, Councillor of Joseph II of Austria, organized the Tugendbund to liberate the German states from the oppressive rule of Napoleon. (Some historians claim that Stein had no involvement with the Tugendbund.) Earlier Frederick William III had appointed Stein Prime Minister of Prussia. An irony is that Napoleon had encourage Frederick William to appoint Stein as prime minister. Apparently, Napoleon saw Stein as merely a clever organizer and financier who could put Prussia in a position to pay its large war indemnifies to France. Napoleon soon learned about Stein organizing Prussia to oppose him. He then forced Frederick William to dismiss Stein. Stein fled to Austria, and Hardenberg succeeded Stein as the Prussian Prime Minister.

The Tugendbund was a secret society organized throughout Germany. The goal of the Tugendbund was to rejuvenate the German people by promising them constitutional government and a free press. It was given a Christian veneer to deceive Christians into becoming followers of Freemasonry. Among its earliest members were Karl Hardenberg, General Gerhard von Scharnhorst, General Wittgenstein, Field Marshal Gerhard von Blucher, Johann Jahn (professor of the Berlin Gymnasium, Biblical critic), and Ernst Arndt (author). Other members of the Tugendbund were Johann Fichte (philosopher), Gruner (Prussian diplomat and administrator), and Karl Korner (poet). The Tugendbund was instrumental in rallying the Germans to rise and defeat Napoleon. It also advocated for a German Confederation, which Stein viewed as necessary to make the Germans a powerful country. (Under this Confederation, all the German princes would be dethroned except the king of Prussia. The king of Prussia would become emperor of Germany, and Germany would be governed under a democratic constitution.)

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Copyright©2009 by Thomas Coley Allen.

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