Thursday, November 26, 2009

Europe After the Revolution of 1848

Europe After the Revolution of 1848Thomas Allen

[Editor’s note: Foot notes in the original are omitted.]

This paper discusses four major events that happen in Europe the quarter century following the Revolution of 1848. These events are the rise and fall of Napoleon III, the Crimean War, the unification of Italy, and the unification of Germany.

Napoleon IIIIn France a result of the Revolution of 1848 was the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic, the “Social Democratic Republic.” Secret societies had organized this Revolution, and socialists directed it. However, Louis Napoleon’s rise to power meant an end to socialist rule. After he was elected president of the new republic, most of the socialist leaders were imprisoned.

Freemasonry had supported Louis Napoleon’s overthrow of Louis Philippe. Earlier during the Revolution of 1830, Freemasons had supported Louis Philippe when he deposed Charles X. The Revolution of 1830 was an Orleanist led conspiracy whose primary objective seemed to have been to change the monarchial dynasty.

Another secret society working to overthrow the monarchy was the reorganized Society of the Seasons. Controlling this Society were Caussidiere (who became perfect of police under the provisional government), Grandmesnil, Leontre (writer), and Leroux (a manufacturer). In 1846, Albert (a mechanic and later a secretary of the provisional government) and Flocon (chief editor of the Reforme, for which Leontre worked) replaced Caussidiere and Leontre.

The Dissidents was a Communist secret society involved in overthrowing Louis Philippe. Communists who had seceded from the Society of the Seasons formed it. Its leaders were Chenu, Culot, Flotte (a naval officer), and Gueret. Like the Society of the Seasons, the Dissidents wanted to institute the doctrines of Robespierre.

Between the abdication of King Louis Philippe and the implementation of the new constitution, a self-appointed provisional government ruled France. Included in this government were Etienne Arago (Freemason), Adolphe Cremieux (Jew and Freemason), Jacques Dupont de l’Eure (Carbonari and Freemason), who became the provisional president, Alphonse de Lamartine (Freemason), Alexandre Ledru-Rollin (Freemason), Marie, and Louis Garnier-Pages (Freemason). Flocon (head of the Society of the Seasons), Louis Blanc, and Paquerre were made secretaries.

Louis Napoleon, later Napoleon III, was elected president of the new republic. Apparently, Louis Napoleon, who was a Freemason and a member of the Carbonari, angered many Illuminists when he seized power in France in 1851 and proclaimed himself Emperor in 1852. One of Louis Napoleon first acts was to dissolve Masonic lodges. Soon afterwards, he allowed them to reopen with his nephew, Prince Lucian Murat, as Grand Master. Murat ran the lodges primarily for his uncle’s benefit. By 1862, Freemasons were able to pressure Napoleon III into replacing Murat. Napolean’s seizure of power apparently was not part of the Illuminists’ grand plan. They retaliated by having his son killed.

Furthermore, Napoleon III gained the hatred of Mazzini when he (Napoleon III) gained Palmerston’s favor. (After, perhaps even before, 1848 animosity existed between Palmerston and Mazzini.) After Palmerston died in 1865, Mazzini began his work to overthrow Napoleon III.

Using his powerful position in Freemasonry, Mazzini directed Freemasons in France and Germany. Mazzini got Bismark to promise to persecute the Catholic Church in exchange for Masonic support against France. Bismark delivered on his promise. Freemasons close to Napoleon III urged him to misdirect the French army to Mexico and Italy. In 1870, Prussia led the German states in an invasion and defeat of France. Born out of the Franco-German War was the German Empire promised Prussia more than a decade earlier. The war ended Napoleon III’s rule and the Second Empire.

When the Second Empire fell, the socialists and Freemasons seized power. The control of the government of France fell to 11 men, nine of whom were Freemasons (Emmanuel Arago, Cremieux, Jules Favre, Jules Ferry, Louis Garnier-Pages, Camille Pelletan, Picard, Rochefort, and Jules Simon) and three were Jews (Cremieux, Leon Gambetta, and Glass-Bizoin). They established the Third Republic, which Freemasons controlled until it fell to the Germans in 1939.

Crimean War
Under Palmerston’s leadership, the Illuminists undertook to break the alliance between Russia and Austria, the two great conservative empires of Europe, and to turn France against Russia. Accomplishment of this plan required war with Russia. To be successful, Prussia and Austria would have to remain neutral. Prussia was bought with the promise of the Empire of United Germany. Austria was threatened with carving a kingdom of Poland and Hungary out of her.

The threat to Austria was real in that French and English forces were massing along the Danube. Once Austria withdrew from her alliance with Russia, the French and English armies moved to the Crimea. Because of Austria’s capitulation, Austria lost her influence and in 1866 her last province, Venetia, in Italy.

The ultimate objective of the Crimean War was a united Germany under the Prussian monarchy and a united Italy under the Piedmontese monarchy. The alliance between Russia and Austria prevented achievement of these objectives. Once the alliance was broken, the German states and Italian states were soon united. (Another objective, an independent Polish state and an independent Hungarian state, had to wait for World War I to be achieved.)

Unification of Italy
Following the Crimean War, Illuminists began to work earnestly to unify Italy. Groundwork toward the unification had begun decades earlier.

When the unification movement began, Freemasonry and the Carbonari were outlawed in every country in Italy except Piedmont. (The Austrians had outlawed secret societies in 1820 in her two provinces, Lombardy and Venetia.) As leaders of the Revolution of the 1820s, the Carbonari forced Ferdinand, King of the Two Sicilies, to bow to their will. The Austrians entered Italy and ended the revolution. The Carbonari were driven underground throughout Italy except in Piedmont. Giuseppe Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Conte Camille Benso di Cavour, all three of whom were Freemasons, revived the society after 1830. Thus, Piedmont became the base for unifying Italy.

Modern Freemasonry had come to Italy in 1733 when Lord Sackville of England established the first Masonic lodge in Italy. The Grand Orient of Italy had been organized in 1805 in Milan under the auspice of Napoleon to unify and control Freemasonry in Italy for the benefit of the French. Thus, it claimed authority over all Freemasonry in Italy. Through the Alta Vendita, the Carbonari directed the Grand Orient of Italy.

The Carbonari was a ruse. It was a Catholic front created by Illuminists. Although controlled by Illuminists, the Carbonari were organized as a Christian society with Christ Jesus as the Grand Master. This ploy deceived the Catholic Church and seduced many Christians into joining so that they could be corrupted. To be a member, one had to be a Catholic who regularly attended the Sacraments. The Carbonari had the typical traits of a secret society with ascending degrees, unquestionable obedience to hidden masters, and a death penalty for breach of secrecy. Such features made control of the Carbonari by the anti-Catholic Illuminists relatively easy. Control, Illuminists gained and executed. Although the Carbonari were ostensibly loyal Catholics, they became the instrument of the Illuminists to destroy the power of the Catholic Church in Italy.

Daraul describes the Carbonari as follows: “The objective of this society [the Carbonari] was to constitute a body of men who would be subject to the order of a central body. . . . It formed a state within a state. . . . the Carbonari were a . . . body dedicated to revolt and to gaining of material power.”[1] Among the ancestors of the Carbonari were the ancient Mysteries, particularly the cult of Mithra, Gnosticism, Freemasonry, Templarism, Cathars, and Sufis.

In 1851, when Louis Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor, the Carbonari moved to consolidate their gains in Italy. Later, an international group of Freemasons met in London in 1860 to plan their strategy for seizing absolute control in Italy. (Freemasonry was to be the means by which British intelligence would unify Italy.) Lord Palmerston led the group, which included Louis Kossuth and Adriano Lemmi.

Garibaldi and Mazzini led the illuministic revolution in Italy that resulted in the unification of Italy in 1860. (Complete unification was finished in 1870 when the pope lost his last vestige of temporal power and Rome fell to Italian Freemasonry.) Behind this Masonic led revolution was the British intelligence. The British intelligence, under Lord Palmerston, Prime Minister of Great Britain, planned and financed the Italian unification movement. Rich German Jews were also an important source of financing the Carbonari, Alta Vendita, and the unification of Italy and the advancement of Illuminism. (Jews were among the members of the Alta Vendita.)

In 1864, Garibaldi (who was in reality merely a tool of Palmerston, Mazzini, and Cavour) united the three Masonic groups in Italy and made himself the most powerful political leader in Italy.

Following the unification of Italy and Lord Palmerston’s death, Mazzini, with the aid of Albert Pike, went on to unify Freemasonry. Mazzini saw Freemasonry as an important and powerful weapon in revolutionizing (illuminizing) the world. To unify Freemasonry, Mazzini left all the established systems and rites in place. However, he and Pike created a supreme rite, which remained unknown to most Freemasons, except the high-degree Freemasons whom Mazzini and Pike selected. This supreme rite governed all Freemasonry.

In 1870, Mazzini and Pike entered an alliance that would give them control of Freemasonry. Pike became the dogmatic authority of Freemasonry with a title of Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry. Mazzini became the executive authority with the title of Sovereign Chief of Political Action. Also, 1870 was the year of the Franco-Prussian War.

Unification of Germany
After the unification of Italy, came the unification of Germany. With the aid of Mazzini, Jews, and Freemasons, Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War. To break the alliance between France and Italy, Bismark, a Freemason, used Mazzini and Italian Freemasonry. The war forced France to withdraw from Italy. This withdrawal gave Mazzini and Italian Freemasonry, with Bismark’s approval and encouragement, the opportunity to force Victor Emmanuel to take Rome. Bismark agreed to provide the Italian revolutionists the arms and money that they needed to take Rome if Victor Emmanuel refused to take it. The revolutionists promised to foment sufficient agitation to prevent Italy from forming an alliance with France. With Bismark’s money, Freemasonry soon prevailed, and Italy marched on Rome.

After the war, Bismark used the Jews to replenish his war chest, and the Jews used Bismark to bring about liberal reforms in Germany that benefitted them. Both used the other to advance Prussian imperialism through subversive revolutions. Through their agent, Samuel Bleichroder, court banker of the Prussian Emperor, the Rothschild’s money financed Germany unification and expansion.

As the head of Young Germany, Jews were an important element in the unification of Germany. They sought to unify Germany under Prussian control. They intended to, and to a large extent did, control Prussia. To achieve this goal, they had participated greatly in the Revolution of 1848 in Germany, which sought Jewish emancipation and Prussian supremacy.

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Copyright © 2009 by Thomas Coley Allen.

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